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Digital Markets Act: the European Commission’s plans for regulating digital ‘Gatekeepers’

On 15 December, the European Commission published a proposal for a Regulation on the  Digital Markets Act (DMA). Together with the Digital Services Act (DSA) it forms the foundation of the European digital strategy, aiming to create a safe digital space in which the rights of all users of digital services are protected and to establish a level playing field to foster innovation, growth, and competitiveness, within the EU and globally.

Which businesses will be affected by the new Digital Markets Act proposal?

The Digital Markets Act addresses certain behaviors of platforms acting as “gatekeepers”. It establishes a set of narrowly defined criteria for qualifying a large online platform as a so-called “gatekeeper”. To be identified as a gatekeeper, the company should provide core platform services, including online intermediation services, online search engines, online social networking services, video-sharing platform services, number independent interpersonal communication services, operating systems, and cloud computing services. The Commission proposes three key cumulative criteria with quantitative thresholds related to strong economic position, sizeable turnover, large number of users, and an entrenched position in the market that must be met to be defined as a “gatekeeper”. Companies will have to assess if they meet these criteria and provide their assessment to the European Commission, who will designate if companies are gatekeepers or not. The Commission can identify gatekeepers that meet these criteria but do not meet the quantitative thresholds, taking into account other factors (e.g. entry barriers derived from network effects and data, scale and scope effects that the provider benefits from, business or end-user lock-in, etc.). Those companies declared as gatekeepers will be obliged to comply with the new obligations established by the Digital Markets Act.

Do’s and don’ts for gatekeepers:

Among the list of obligations for gatekeepers, the Commission considers allowing interoperability for third-parties with the gatekeeper’s own services in certain situations, allowing business users to access the data they generate using the gatekeeper’s services and providing companies with the necessary tools and information to verify their advertisements hosted by the gatekeeper. Additionally, gatekeepers must allow business users to offer products and services through third-party online intermediation services, different from the gatekeeper, at different prices or conditions and let business users promote their offers and conclude contracts with customers acquired via the core platform service outside the gatekeeper’s platform.

Among the prohibitions for gatekeepers, they may no longer treat services and products offered by the gatekeeper itself more favorably in ranking than similar services or products offered by third-parties on the gatekeeper’s platform. Gatekeepers may not prevent consumers from linking up to businesses outside their platforms or prevent users from un-installing any pre-installed software or app if they wish so. Finally, gatekeepers may no longer combine personal data sourced from these core platform services with personal data from any other services offered by them (gatekeepers) or with personal data from third-party services.

How will the Digital Markets Act be enforced?

The European Commission will have investigative and enforcement powers regarding the Digital Markets Act and will be able to impose fines of up to 10 percent of the company’s total worldwide annual turnover, with the provision of periodic penalty payments of up to 5 percent of the average daily turnover. In case of systematic infringements of the Digital Markets Act obligations by gatekeepers, additional remedies may be imposed on the gatekeepers after a market investigation. Such remedies will need to be proportionate to the offence committed. If necessary and as a last resort option, non-financial remedies can be imposed. These can include behavioral and structural remedies, such as the divestiture of (parts of) a business.

What implications could the Digital Markets Act proposal have for companies?

Stakeholders from various sectors quickly reacted to the new proposal for a Digital Markets Act by pointing out that while the proposal was a good starting point, there was still a lot of work to be done. One of the criticisms concerns the negative implications of the concept of ‘gatekeepers’, with industry representatives arguing that the scope of the new proposal should look at strategic market status instead, similarly to the approach of the U.K.’s Competition and Markets Authority. As the asymmetric obligations under the Digital Markets Act will only apply to certain companies, there has been a push to include market share as a main criterion, instead of turnover. Additionally, there are concerns about the Commission’s increased enforcement powers which could result in a less objective process. Furthermore, industry representatives tend to point out the possibility of the Digital Markets Act leading to the creation of parallel national rules addressing the same issues and resulting in legal fragmentation across the EU.

Given the targeted nature of the Digital Markets Act, the impact is expected to be limited to around a dozen companies, in particular Big Tech companies, and while it does not target small companies and startups, it is expected that the DMA will impact their abilities to scale in the EU. Furthermore, the fact that the Digital Markets Act appears to specifically target a handful of companies is a source of criticism for several stakeholders as it makes it harder to develop new products to support small businesses in Europe.

Next steps in the legislative process

After the publication of the Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act proposals, they will be the subject of long and likely arduous discussions in the Council of the EU and in the European Parliament. As confirmed by the Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the EU, the Digital Markets Act will be discussed in the Working Party on Competitiveness and Growth, falling within the remit of the Competition Council formation. Work on the proposals in the Council has already started in the first week of January, as the Digital Services Act and the Digital Markets Act will be the key files for the Portuguese Presidency.

In the European Parliament, the Internal Market Committee (IMCO) will take the lead for both files, with the Industry (ITRE), Justice (JURI) and Culture (CULT) committees poised to submit opinions on the DSA, and the Economic (ECON), Industry (ITRE) and Justice (JURI) committees on the DMA. The EP’s IMCO Committee will hold a first exchange of views on both files on 11 January.

In terms of the time frame for adopting the Digital Markets Act, France has announced a highly ambitious plan to conclude the negotiations for both proposals, so including the DSA as well, during its Presidency of the Council of the EU in the first half of 2022. The Commission shares this objective for the co-decision process to be finalized in a year and a half, however, it is useful to remember that other recent and major files, such as the General Data Protection Regulation and the Copyright Reform, took respectively 5 and 2.5 years to be adopted.

Dr2 Consultants closely monitors the developments on this file for its clients. If you would like to know more about the proposal, and how it might impact your business, please contact Dr2 Consultants.

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Digital Services Act proposal: the start of a new era in digital regulation

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Digital Services Act

Digital Services Act proposal: the start of a new era in digital regulation

On 15 December, the European Commission published proposals for Regulations on the Digital Services Act (DSA) and the Digital Markets Act (DMA), with the goal to reform the digital space, creating a comprehensive set of new rules for all digital services, including social media, online market places, and other online platforms that operate in the European Union.

The proposed Regulation on a Digital Services Act aims to update the eCommerce Directive (ECD) from the year 2000 as well as introduce new binding, harmonized, EU-wide obligations which will have a significant impact on a wide range of digital services that connect consumers to goods, services and content. This blog post sheds some light on some of the main provisions of the Digital Services Act and their subsequent impact on businesses.

Which companies will be affected by the new Digital Services Act proposal?

The Digital Services Act proposal includes rules for online intermediary services. The obligations of different online players match their role, size and impact in the online ecosystem. Among the regulated groups are intermediary services offering network infrastructure (Internet access providers, domain name registrars), hosting services such as cloud and webhosting services, online platforms bringing together sellers and consumers such as online marketplaces, app stores, collaborative economy platforms and social media platforms, and very large online platforms. All online intermediaries offering their services in the EU Single Market, whether they are established in the EU or outside, will have to comply with the new rules. Micro and small companies will have obligations proportionate to their ability and size while ensuring they remain accountable.

An asymmetric approach: different obligations for different players

The Digital Services Act will introduce a series of new, harmonized EU-wide obligations for digital services, carefully graduated on the basis of those services’ size and impact. All intermediaries falling under the scope of the DSA will have obligations in terms of transparency and fundamental rights protection and would have to cooperate with national authorities. Additionally, all intermediaries not established in the EU but offering services in the Union will have to designate a legal representative in one of the Member States where the provider offers its services. The absence of general monitoring obligations, already enshrined in the ECD, will remain in place in the Digital Services Act. Additionally, the Commission has introduced a “good Samaritan” principle, under which providers of intermediary services are not excluded from liability exemptions because they carry out voluntary activities to detect and remove illegal content.

For online platforms and hosting services, the proposal includes requirements for more detailed notice & action provisions. The proposal also introduces the concept of trusted flaggers, appointed by Member States authorities, whose notices should be processed with priority. Furthermore, the proposal introduces a “Know your business customer” principle, under which platforms will be required to obtain and verify identification information from the traders prior to allowing them to use their services. Finally, transparency obligations for online advertising will require online platforms to provide their users information on the sources of the ads they see online, including on why an individual has been targeted with a specific advertisement.

Platforms that reach more than 10% of the EU’s population (45 million users) monthly in average will be considered systemic in nature and will be subject to specific obligations to control their own risks. Very large online platforms will have to conduct yearly risk analyses, they will be subject at their own expenses to annual audits, adhere to transparency obligations for recommender systems as well as comply with additional measures for online advertising transparency. Finally, very large online platforms will have to appoint one or more compliance officers responsible for monitoring their compliance with the Digital Services Act Regulation. Member States will have to lay down the rules on penalties applicable to infringements of these rules by providers of intermediary services under their jurisdiction with the maximum not exceeding 6 percent of the annual income or turnover of the intermediary service.

Strengthened enforcement & cross-border cooperation

EU countries will be required to appoint a so-called “Digital Services Coordinator” to oversee enforcement of the regulation, which will have powers in terms of investigation, enforcement (including fines) and the imposition of access restrictions. Additionally, the coordinator would have the possibility of cooperating cross-border by requesting another digital service coordinator in a country of establishment to carry out an investigation. An independent advisory group of Digital Services Coordinators named the “European Board for Digital Services” will be established, which will contribute to the guidance and consistent application of the regulation and assist the digital service coordinators. For the case of very large platforms, the Commission will have direct supervision powers and, in the most serious cases, will be able to impose fines of up to 6 percent of the global turnover of a service provider.

What implications could the Digital Services Act proposal have for businesses?

Industry stakeholders’ first impressions of the proposal are mixed, with generalized positive reactions to the extra harmonization measures, and the preservation of the ECD’s core principles. However, many raise concerns about the Act’s compatibility with other existing legislation, such as the Platform-to-Business Regulation and the Omnibus Directive, as well as the way the trusted flaggers’ concept would work in terms of transparency, an issue raised also by consumer protection groups. The inclusion of the requirement for non-EU companies to have a legal representative in the EU, while burdensome for such companies, has so far been accepted positively by European players as it would ensure a level playing field within the Single Market. Relating to the fines, the issue has been raised that the threat of significant fines for non-compliance might lead to preventive removal of content which might otherwise be considered legal, putting companies in the uncomfortable position of risking fines under the Digital Services Act or being criticised for violating freedom of expression by censorship.

Another example of businesses that would be impacted by the new rules are information society services offering a wide range of services such as search engines, cloud services and other platforms. Those businesses generally welcome the fact that the core foundations of the e-Commerce Directive are maintained, i.e. limited liability, no general monitoring obligations and the maintenance of the country of origin principle. However, there will be extra obligations for ‘very large online platforms’, having more than 45 million users across the Union. These platforms will have to provide regulators and outside groups with greater access to internal data, and appoint independent auditors who will determine if these firms are compliant with the new rules. The biggest tech companies will also be forced to provide greater transparency on online advertisements. These extra obligations will require additional resources and also raise a question about the legislative coherence between the Digital Services Act on the one hand, and provisions in for instance the recently published European Democracy Action Plan on the other. As the Action Plan foresees platforms to take actions against disinformation, it is worrying that the concept of disinformation might include not only illegal but also harmful content, a concept which has not been included in the Digital Services Act.

Finally, there have been concerns among Big Tech companies that the criteria for identifying very large platforms need to be clearer and more inclusive, with several accusing the Commission in selection bias. Furthermore, the Digital Services Act is likely to have significant consequences for gig economy companies, such as well-known travel accommodation websites, as the extra requirements against illegal content and the provision of information on users would allow local authorities to require the removal of unregistered properties and receive information on hosts with outstanding tax obligations. City authorities in big European cities such as Amsterdam, Berlin and Paris, had adopted rules against said platforms and the Digital Services Act would allow them to enforce them.

What to expect next in the legislative process?

After the publication of the Digital Services Act and Digital Markets Act proposals, they will be the subject of long and likely arduous discussions in the Council of the EU and in the European Parliament. As confirmed by the upcoming Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the EU, the Digital Services Act will be discussed in the Internal Market Working Party, falling within the remit of the Competition Council formation. Work on the proposals in the Council is expected to start in the first week of January, as the Digital Services Act and the Digital Markets Act will be key files for the Portuguese Presidency. In the European Parliament, there is strong internal competition over which committee would take the file, with Internal Market Committee (IMCO) Chair Anna Cavazzini (Greens/EFA, Germany) arguing that both proposals should be assigned to her committee, while other MEPs call for shared competencies between the Internal Market, Legal Affairs and Civil Liberties committees for the DSA, and the Economic and Monetary Affairs Committee taking over the DMA.

In terms of the time frame for adopting the DSA, France has announced a highly ambitious plan to conclude the negotiations for both proposals during its Presidency of the Council of the EU in the first half of 2022. The Commission shares this objective for the co-decision process to be finalised in a year and a half, however, it is useful to remember that other recent and major files, such as the General Data Protection Regulation and the Copyright Reform, took respectively 5 and 2.5 years to be adopted.

Dr2 Consultants closely monitors the developments on this file for its clients. If you would like to know more about the proposal, and how it might impact your business, please contact Dr2 Consultants.

Visit our Digital & Tech webpage to learn more about our services.

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Data Governance Act: main elements and business implications

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Data Governance Act: main elements and business implications

Executive Vice-President, Margrethe Vestager, presented, on 25 November 2020, the European Commission’s new Data Governance Act, the first proposal to come out of its 2020 European Data Strategy. The Act has been postponed several times since September, with a working draft leaked by several news outlets early November receiving serious criticism. The official document, published in November, has been adjusted and seems to have taken on board some of the concerns expressed. However, the final proposal has been modified compared to the leaked version. In this blog post, Dr2 Consultants explains the main elements of this Act and its business implications.

Main elements of the proposed Data Governance Act

The European Commission decided to opt for a regulation as the legal instrument for its Data Governance Act due to the predominance of elements that require a uniform application which would not leave margins of implementation to the Member States, in order to create a fully horizontal EU framework. These are the key elements of the draft regulation:

Re-use of data produced by the public sector

The Data Governance Act proposal aims to increase the amount of data available for re-use within the EU by allowing public sector data to be used for purposes different than the ones for which the data was originally collected. The type of data targeted by the Act are, for example, data generated by GPS, or healthcare data, which if put to productive use, could contribute to improving the quality of services. The data collected could be re-used for commercial or non-commercial activities and the Commission estimates that the implementation of the measures proposed could increase the economic value of data by up to €11 billion by 2028.

Data intermediaries

The Commission believes that, in order to incentivize individuals to share their data, they should trust the process by which those data are handled. To this end, it proposes to create “data intermediaries”, which will handle the sharing of data by individuals, public bodies and private companies. These data sharing service providers will come as a European alternative to the existing major tech platforms.

To uphold trust in said intermediaries, the Commission proposes to put in place several protective measures. First, intermediaries will have to notify public authorities of their intention to provide data-sharing services. Second, they will have to commit to the protection of sensitive and confidential data. Finally, the Commission will impose strict requirements to ensure the intermediaries’ neutrality. These providers will have to distinguish their data sharing services from other commercial operations, and are prohibited from using the data exchanged for any other purposes. Certain services that have been excluded from becoming new data intermediaries as part of the regulation include cloud service providers and data advertising brokers, data consultancies, or providers of data products.

The early draft of the Data Governance Act, leaked in November, had caused controversy with regards to these intermediaries, as it required that they be legally established in the EU or EEA. This approach was strongly defended by Internal Market Commissioner, Thierry Breton, who has long been a champion of “data sovereignty”. The leaked proposal highlighted that this requirement was to facilitate the supervision of intermediaries’ compliance with the requirements of the Act.

EU Affairs Training - 28 January 2021

However, several experts criticized the measures, saying that they would discriminate against foreign companies and therefore, violate the EU engagements as part of the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO forbids countries to require providers of data sharing services from abroad to be legally based within their own country.

Many businesses had also reacted with worry to the leaked document, claiming that the restriction of data flows could result in a loss of billions of euros in digital trade.

Despite Commissioner Breton’s strong defense of the so-called “data localization” aspect, other Commissioners, including Vice-President Vestager herself, were less favorable towards this approach, resulting in the Commission’s backtracking on this aspect in the final proposal. As it stands, the Data Governance Act only requires intermediaries to either have a place of establishment in the EU, or to designate a representative in Europe.

However, restrictions on the transfer of sensitive data to third countries remain in the final proposal.

Sector-specific data spaces

The proposed Act also aims at creating sector-specific data spaces to enable the sharing of data within a specific sector. For example, the Act plans for the creation of data spaces for transport, health, energy or agriculture.

Data altruism

The Data Governance Act also aims at creating favorable conditions for “data altruism”, meaning encouraging individuals to voluntarily donate personal data to serve the general interest. To do so, “personal data spaces” will be created to ensure that the data shared will only be used for purposes that individuals who donated it agreed to, such as, for example, medical research. Non-for-profit organizations will have the opportunity to sign up into a public register of “data altruism organization”.

European Data Innovation Board

Finally, the draft Data Governance Act plans for the creation of a European Data Innovation Board. Its missions would be to oversee the data sharing service providers (the data intermediaries) and provide advice on best practices for data sharing.

The Member of the European Parliament Miapetra Kumpula-Natri (S&D, Finland), who is the rapporteur for the Industry, Research and Energy Committee’s (ITRE) draft initiative report on the Data Strategy, welcomed the “ambitious” proposal. She called the Commission’s decision to leave it to national bodies to protect sensitive data “fair enough as compromise, but not good for the single market and harmonization”. The deadline for amendments of the draft report ended on 12 November and the final Committee vote is expected in January 2021.

Data Governance Act’s potential implications for businesses and next steps

In terms of potential implications for businesses, some industry representatives have already raised concerns about the extra barriers to data flows that the draft Act risks creating through the assessment provision of third countries’ data protection regimes, with the option of blocking the transfer of highly sensitive data, the definition of which is, so far, unclear. An additional issue that has been also highlighted is that the Act could allow for discrimination on the basis of a quasi-licensing scheme it would set up, requiring companies to notify the authorities if they want to become service providers. Given the vague wording of the proposal, it could allow for selective revocation of said licenses, giving authorities the power to remove certain providers from the list.

The Commission is collecting feedback on the adoption of the Data Governance Act from 25 November until 25 January 2021. Early next year, the Commission is also expected to present the Data Act, attempting to create an environment conducive to increased data sharing among businesses and governments.

Dr2 Consultants continuously monitors the developments around the EU Data Strategy. Should you be interested in further information on the Data Governance Act proposal and how it could impact your organization, you can reach out to Dr2 Consultants at info@dr2consultants.eu or find more information on our website.

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Offshore renewable energy - waves

Offshore renewable energy: EU takes next steps

With the EU’s new offshore renewable energy strategy (ORES) – “EU Strategy to harness the potential of offshore renewable energy for a climate neutral future” (published on 19 November 2020), the European Commission is widening the scope of its offshore activities. From focusing on offshore wind energy (bottom-fixed), the Commission aims to facilitate the further development of other offshore energy technologies such as floating wind energy, wave and tidal energy, but also floating solar energy and the use of algae. Our blog post sheds some light on upcoming opportunities and challenges from the offshore renewable energy strategy for the different offshore energy technologies.

Maritime spatial planning as a basis

Maritime spatial planning (coordination of use of marine space and resources) will be key to the further development of offshore renewable energy technologies. In the framework of the Maritime Spatial Planning Directive, the Commission aims to ensure sufficient space and resources are available for offshore technologies by coordinating the submission of national maritime spatial plans due by 31 March 2021. Such maritime spatial planning should be carefully coordinated with different national energy and climate plans but also the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems.

Offshore renewable energy - Floating solar farm

Floating solar farm

 

From focusing on offshore wind energy (bottom-fixed), the Commission aims to facilitate the further development of other offshore energy technologies.

Different offshore renewable energy operators, as well as energy grid operators, are strongly encouraged to engage both on a European and national level to improve the quality of existing and future spatial planning. These exchanges will be facilitated by the European Commission throughout 2021 and beyond.

A clearer EU regulatory framework to facilitate investments

While offshore renewable energy projects are mainly nationally driven, the Commission wants to facilitate the further development of more complex, cross-border projects. Most importantly, the Commission clarifies the current regulatory framework for offshore bidding zones in its accompanying Staff Working Document. Furthermore, The Commission will ensure that the forthcoming revision of the state aid rules and the Renewable Energy Directive provide a fully updated and fit-for-purpose framework in order to cost-effectively deploy clean energy, including renewable offshore energy.

The lofty ambitions of the Commission will provide a very good opportunity for large-scale cross-border project operators to benefit from a changing regulatory framework. Such operators are advised to keep a close eye on the upcoming changes to the European electricity legislation, which will facilitate their activities. If you would like to stay up to date on the latest developments in the EU energy sector, visit our monitoring services webpage to find out how Dr2 Consultants can support you.

Targeted funding opportunities for offshore renewable energy deployment and R&I

Most importantly, the Commission aims to unlock new private investments as these are expected to carry the bulk of financing needs. The new InvestEU fund will play a key role, with the European Investment Bank acting as a European Climate Bank. In addition, existing and future EU funding instruments such as the NER 300, the Recovery and Resilience Facility and the Connecting Europe Facility are expected to substantially fund mature cross-border projects. Furthermore, investment programs such as Horizon Europe, the Innovation Fund and the Modernisation Fund will provide support for research, innovation and demonstration projects underpinning the future development and deployment of innovative offshore energy technologies in Europe.

Whether your organization is active in early stage R&I activities, demonstration of innovative technologies or the further deployment and rollout of offshore renewable energy infrastructure, the above mentioned EU funding instruments will serve a supporting role to the changing regulatory framework.

In conclusion, the Commission aims to tackle the challenge of creating the optimum environment to maintain and accelerate the current European momentum in offshore renewables. As such, the EU is ready to support frontrunners in this area to preserve its own leading role on a global level.

The Commission is actively inviting all stakeholders to discuss the policy actions proposed in this strategy and to join forces in taking this action forward without delay. Dr2 Consultants is ideally placed to support your organization to identify the opportunities in upcoming financial and policy developments. Fore more information, contact us at info@dr2consultants.eu or call us at +32 (0)2 512 37 22.


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European Year of Rail: 2021 – boost to a modal shift

The EU institutions declared 2021 as the European Year of Rail but what will next year exactly entail and how can stakeholders take advantage of this initiative? In this blog post, Dr2 Consultants highlights how the rail sector will be put in the limelight as of January.

Every calendar year since 1983 (with the exception of 2016 and 2017) marks a new ‘European Year’ with a different theme during each iteration. The European Years span across a wide range of subjects such as development aid (2015), mobility of employees (2006) languages (2001), etc. 2021, has been declared the European Year of Rail.

The main goal of designating ‘European Years’ is to increase the visibility of certain industries and to promote a political momentum to bring around significant changes. The practical aspects mostly entail media campaigns and stakeholder events targeting both European citizens as well as businesses and other stakeholders. In some cases, the European Commission also uses this opportunity to put forward new legislation.

What the European Year of Rail will look like?

In March 2020, the European Commission published a proposal for a decision to designate 2021 as the European Year of Rail. Rail plays an important role in the Commission’s plans in decarbonizing the transport sector, as it is referred to in the European Green Deal as the most sustainable and therefore preferred mode of transport. Moreover, the rail sector has also taken a prominent place in the COVID-19 recovery phase as enabler of the green recovery.

The Commission’s proposal was quickly followed by inter-institutional consultations between the European Commission, the European Parliament, and the Council of the EU, where an agreement was reached on the final text on 12 November. The agreement includes a final budget for the year of €8 million, which is higher than previous proposals. While a comprehensive list of the activities is still yet to be published, following an advice taken up in the European Parliament’s Transport and Tourism Committee (TRAN) report on the proposal for decision, the Commission has been tasked with conducting two studies into concrete proposals to stimulate both freight as well as passenger related rail transport. Even though the final text of the decision is basically set in stone, it has to be approved by the European Parliament plenary (date still to be determined) and the meeting of the European Transport ministers in the Transport Council of 8 December.

Impact on the rail sector

Designating 2021 as the European Year of Rail is in line with the European Commission’s priorities on making transport more sustainable. Stakeholders from the rail sector have unique opportunities in shaping the policy agenda for the years to come, meaning that it will be imperative for them to seize this momentum as much as possible.

Several key initiatives for the transport and rail sector will be central in 2021. Firstly, actively providing input on the execution of the policy initiatives mentioned in the Strategy for Sustainable and Smart Mobility (planned to be published on 8 December 2020) will be crucial in shaping the rail sector for years to come. Secondly, in June 2021 the TEN-T Days will be organized by the Portuguese Presidency of the Council of the EU, which will be an important moment to influence the TEN-T revision and future targeted rail infrastructure investments. Lastly, highlighting important European routes in the Action Plan on rail corridors (Q3 2021), which will aim to facilitate better connections between European capitals and the modal shift, will increase efficiency and connectivity on the trajectories most important to stakeholders actively lobbying on the file. Activities surrounding these proposals, ranging from formal consultations to stakeholder dialogue events and communication campaigns will be initiated on all different levels (European, national, regional and local).

EU Affairs Training - 28 January 2021

In parallel to the policy initiatives, there will be other initiatives that highlight the momentum for rail. This year, a coalition of 25 Member States have set up the International Rail Passenger Platform, in which governments and the industry come together to make meaningful steps on the topics of infrastructure development and passenger services (i.e. ticketing). In addition, Germany has initiated the revival of the once popular TransEuropExpress, with launching a study on high-speed rail transport and night trains. The arts festival Europalia will dedicate its 2021 edition to the influence of railways on arts and their contribution to socio-economic change.

Opportunities for stakeholders in the European Year of Rail

As the focus of 2021 will be on setting the agenda for a modal shift to rail transport, European stakeholders can utilize the stage set by European institutions for rail-related issues to further elaborate and market their ideas and solutions. As the European Commission will be responsible for rolling out of communication and marketing campaigns, being aware of the latest events and actively engaging with the European institutions to be the first guest or participant of choice will be a crucial step to take to be more visible and effective. The industry will be able to fulfil a much needed role in the Commission’s campaigns, providing substance and content-driven input. Additionally, European businesses can initiate their own communication campaigns, which link to the existing media-related initiatives in the context of the European Year of Rail. This will greatly increase the effectiveness and reach of these campaigns, increasing their value and efficiency, and resulting in more value for money.

As mentioned earlier, the European Commission will be conducting two studies. Accompanying stakeholder consultations are expected in the first half of 2021, focused on the viability of a European label to promote goods transported by rail and the development of a rail connectivity index for rail passenger transport. The outcome of these studies will influence legislation for years to come, meaning that taking a proactive role is imperative. These consultation moments are also an opportunity to increase the network of Public Affairs professionals within the European Commission. It is therefore key to be aware of the latest consultations, even if they might not be public, to know who to engage with within the institutions and to effectively promote Public Affairs messages.

Moment to act

Dr2 Consultants has built solid expertise and network by providing support to transport stakeholders from rail and aviation to the maritime sector. We tailor our services, knowledge and expertise to support organizations in the most bespoke way and achieve tangible results. To successfully capitalize on the current political momentum and seize the opportunities provided by the European Year of Rail in 2021, please get in touch with us through our website.

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European cities and regions: three reasons to get active at EU level

Over the past decades, European cities and regions have been an important driver of the European economy. With major societal transformations such as the energy transition and digitalization looming, cities are expected to become even more important enablers, while regions are challenged to keep up. As such, EU policies and funding initiatives become increasingly important for cities and regions. In this blog post, Dr2 Academy, Dr2 Consultant’s educational institute, highlights the three main opportunities for European cities and regions across Europe to act upon.

1. European cities and regions at the heart of the EU budget

On the eve of the new EU’s seven-year budget cycle, and in the political context of a major economic recovery from COVID-19, the EU’s co-legislators have to make important decisions regarding the dispersion of EU funds. With EU initiatives increasingly materializing in cities and regions, more financing instruments come at the disposal of local authorities.

The grants from the EU’s Recovery and Resilience Facility will be linked to national and regional investments in sustainable and smart solutions, such as clean energy technologies, charging stations, building renovations,  scale-up of data cloud capacities, and the rapid roll-out of broadband services. In the execution of the national recovery plans, Member States are required to spend 30% of its investments via the Recovery Fund on climate action, while another 20% will have to be spent on digital projects. This presents opportunities to cities and regions to inform national administrations about the needs at a local level in order to unlock funding.

Moreover, during the next EU budget cycle, the Commission will aim to modernize Regional Development and Cohesion Policy. Sixty-five to eighty-five percent of European Regional Development Fund and Cohesion Fund resources will be allocated to the five different priorities (in the areas of digitization, climate, transport, social policy, and urban development) that the Commission has formulated, depending on Member States’ relative wealth. Developing regions and cities in the EU have the opportunity to obtain financing via the managing authorities in the Member States, especially when the region shows its added value to one of the priority areas.

In addition, in order to ensure that all cities and regions across the EU can overcome the preconditions for the transition towards a climate neutral Europe, the EU has established the Just Transition Fund, earmarking funds for cities and regions to ensure a fair transition. With new project calls coming up early 2021 for various funding programs, it is crucial that European cities and regions are aware of the funding opportunities and subsequent eligibility requirements.

2. The EU ecosystem: fertile environment for coalition-building and partnerships

For European cities and regions, the EU ecosystem provides par excellence opportunities to broaden their networks, exchange best practices and form coalitions to effectively influence EU policy. For example, in the context of the Urban Agenda for the EU, which brings together the Commission, national ministries, city governments and other stakeholders to promote better regulation, easier access to funding and more knowledge sharing on issues relevant for cities, an umbrella project of the EU smart cities policy called the  European innovation partnership on smart cities and communities (EIP-SCC) was set up. It provides a platform that aims at delivering practical knowledge and capacity-building opportunities, facilitating access to financing, and introducing potential partners to each other.

Besides these programs, stakeholder communities such as EUROCITIES and the institutionalized representation in the European Committee of the Regions (CoR) also provide ample opportunities to build a European wide network and share best practices. Moreover, these networks can enable cities to engage with policymakers, receive information, and access EU funding.

3. Cities as frontrunners and active shapers of EU policies

Given that most of the EU citizens live in cities, they play an important role in the implementation of EU policy. While EU’s urban areas are important contributors to the EU’s energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, they are at the same time considered important drivers of the EU’s climate ambitions. Through the greening and digitalization agendas of the EU there are plenty of opportunities for cities to fulfil a leading role. Initiatives that have been recently published, such as the Circular Economy Action Plan, the EU Strategy for Energy System Integration, the expected Strategy for Sustainable and Smart Mobility (9 December) and the Renovation Wave initiative are expected to have a profound impact on European cities.

Dr2 Academy

To make the most out of these opportunities at EU level in terms of financing, coalition-building and policy influence, Dr2 Academy offers a wide range of tailor-made services targeted to organizations and professionals whose work is impacted by EU policies. To accommodate the needs of European cities and regions, Dr2 Academy has developed a dedicated curriculum combining theory and practice, that teaches civil servants about the working of the EU institutions, the impact of EU policies at regional/local level, coalition-building, and the execution of effective Public Affairs strategies. In case of questions, do not hesitate to get into contact with us.

EU Affairs Training - 28 January 2021

Dr2 Academy also organizes an EU Public Affairs training on Thursday 28 January 2021, more information can be found here.

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US and EU flags

US-EU relationship after Joe Biden’s election – an analysis

On Saturday 7 November, five days after American voters went to the polls, Joseph Biden was finally projected by US media to have won enough Electoral College votes to become the next President of the United States, defeating outgoing President Donald Trump. Waves of congratulations immediately came from all over Europe. Many expressed relief that Trump failed to be reelected, given the tense US-EU relationship under his administration. Given the global reach of Dr2 Consultant’s clients, we’ve assessed the impact of the US Election on the US-EU relationship. We are therefore offering an analysis of the repercussions of Democratic candidate Joe Biden’s election on trade, environmental and digital issues.

Trade: a more stable partner but many disputes still to settle

The US-EU trading relationship under Trump’s leadership was highly confrontational. The US President complained countless times about the US trade deficit with the EU. He also intensified a sixteen-year-long tariffs war with the EU over state subsidies granted to Airbus and Boeing, imposing tariffs on European steel and aluminum, as well as on German cars or French wines and cheese, amongst others.

Despite having just raised tariffs in retaliation on about $4 billion worth of US goods, the EU is hoping that Joe Biden’s election will bring an opportunity to fix ongoing disputes, including the Boeing-Airbus feud, as announced by Trade Commissioner Valdis Drombrovskis. EU Trade Ministers also met virtually on Monday, 9 November, to prepare for the “rebooting” of transatlantic relations.

Dr2 Consultants expects the EU to take Joe Biden’s election as an opportunity to re-start the EU-US Free Trade Agreement negotiations, which had died during Obama’s mandate after strong backlash from both sides’ civil societies. Although under Biden’s leadership, negotiations will remain difficult.

Furthermore, Biden’s election might finally allow the World Trade Organization to fill its Secretary General’s seat. Trump’s administration has been blocking the nomination of Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, former minister of Nigeria, despite her being backed by the majority of WTO members.   Although the Democratic Party shares some concern with Republicans over the WTO dispute settlement mechanism, Biden’s proclaimed support of multilateralism could help unlock the situation.

Thanks to Joe Biden’s election, cooperation could also increase on how to deal with China. EU officials hope that cooperation can be found on the protection of emerging technologies, especially 5G networks, to alleviate dependency on Chinese telecom companies. Officials from the Biden campaign have communicated that the future president would be open to cooperating on those topics.

Therefore, although trade relations will not change drastically with Biden’s election, and many disputes remain to be settled, the EU will at least benefit from a more stable and open interlocutor. This will at least result in clearer decisions, which European businesses trading with or involved in the US will benefit from, as they need predictable, transparent, and enforceable trading rules.

Joe Biden

Joe Biden – President-elect of the United States of America

Photo license: Gage Skidmore

Environment and climate change: converging goals on emissions

Climate change is one area in which Biden and the EU see eye-to-eye and cooperation will surely increase, benefiting US-EU relationship.

Although the US have left the Paris Agreement on 4 November 2020, as Trump wanted, Joe Biden has vowed to reenter it as soon as he takes office. Biden also made strong commitments during his campaign to reverse the Trump administration’s detrimental environmental actions, including adopting a $2 trillion green stimulus package, with the objective of cutting US emissions to net zero by 2050, similar to the EU’s target. Furthermore, in terms of sustainable finance, Biden has pledged $5 trillion to support the ecological transition, similarly to EU’s $4 trillion commitment to its own transition.

However, to implement his climate agenda domestically, Biden will have to gain approval from Congress, which might prove tricky if the Senate remains controlled by the Republicans.

Still, Biden’s will to implicate the US in climate talks will likely reignite multilateral cooperation on environmental issues. Additionally, aligned EU and US goals in terms of emissions could give European companies an opportunity to export environmental-friendly solutions and expertise.

Digital and Technology: opposition on Digital Taxation will likely remain

The EU has been attempting to adopt a European Digital Tax for several years, and the Commission has expressed determination to present an EU digital tax proposal if global talks fail to reach an agreement by mid-2021.

Currently, there are ongoing negotiations between 137 countries within the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) about an international tax system, which would redefine the way tech companies are taxed. This would notably impact companies providing digital services, allowing countries where they operate and make significant profit to tax them even if they do not have business operations there. The EU Commission supports this approach and will likely not introduce a separate European Digital Tax if a deal is found at the OECD level.

Trump’s administration however has been less than favorable to allowing foreign countries to tax US digital companies. The US policy under Trump was to use trade sanctions to retaliate against countries seeking to tax U.S. tech companies, as it did when France adopted a digital services tax.

During his campaign, Biden has criticized digital tech giants, and proposed a minimum tax on digital companies. This position could raise the hopes that he would support the taxation system negotiated at the OECD level, or that he at least will not threaten countries adopting digital taxes as strongly as Trump did. However, many observers underline that Democrats have always been just as opposed to a global digital services tax as Republicans, and the OECD does not believe that the change of leadership will increase significantly the chances of success of the negotiations. The deadline for an agreement to be found, originally set for the end of 2020, has already been postponed to mid-2021.

If the OECD negotiations do not result in an agreement on a taxation system, Dr2 Consultants expects companies providing digital services to likely face an EU-level tax. Dr2 Consultants helps its client keep track of the different tax initiatives and understand the potential impact of their business.

There will certainly also be a lot of discussions between the EU and the US on other key digital topics, from content regulation to EU-US data flows and the privacy shields talks.

European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen’s twitter thread following Biden’s election summarizes well the EU’s general position regarding Biden’s election: “It is time for a new transatlantic agenda fit for today’s world”, mentioning notably the work to be done on “health, climate, digital [and] reform of the multilateral rules-based system”.

Although Trump’s departure from the White House will likely facilitate communication with the US, the relationship will not go back to the pre-Trump status quo overnight.

Dr2 Consultants continuously monitors the evolution of the US-EU relationship. Should you be interested in further information on how Joe Biden’s election and his agenda could impact your business, you can reach out to Dr2 Consultants at info@dr2consultants.eu or find more information on our website.

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Recovery of the EU tourism industry and its way to a smart and sustainable sector

The COVID-19 pandemic has a devastating impact on the tourism sector, directly affecting 22 million jobs and 2.3 million businesses. In Europe, the tourism sector accounts for around 5% of the EU’s total workforce and almost 4% of the EU’s GDP. As we are witnessing a second wave of infections and subsequent travel restrictions in the EU, the outlook for the sector is not promising. What measures have been taken so far, and how will the recovery of the EU tourism industry be ensured?

Support measures at EU and Member States level

As an initial response to support the sector, the European Commission adopted a package of initiatives in May to allow for a coordinated framework to resume transport and tourism, including guidelines on safe and healthy travel, guidance for lifting internal borders and recommendations on vouchers issued by package travel organizations. However, as the EU has limited competence in the field of tourism, its guidelines are non-binding, thereby hampering the effectiveness of its actions.

At a national level, most Member States introduced economic assistance packages that also covers the tourism sector, including extended deadlines for payments of social charges and wage subsidies, loans and guarantees for workers. The EU competition framework was amended to facilitate this kind of direct support that would normally not be in line with the state aid rules.

Additionally, in order to further facilitate coordination of travelling across the EU, Member States recently adopted a recommendation establishing common criteria and a common framework on travel measures in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. However, individual Member States remain responsible for implementing the content of the recommendation, leading to a patchwork of measures and consequently insecurity and unclarity about travel.

European Parliament’s push for coordination of the recovery of the EU tourism industry

The European Parliament (EP) has been very vocal in the role it thinks the EU should play in the recovery of the EU tourism industry. On 29 June, the EP adopted a resolution calling for additional measures to save the EU’s tourism and travel sector. Around that time, different political groups (such as Renew Europe, S&D) in the EP published individual position papers on tourism, all advocating for more European coordination.

The European Parliament’s Tourism Task Force (TTF), a dedicated group in the Committee on Transport and Tourism (TRAN) has been a vocal supporter of developing a strategy for sustainable tourism for some years, advocating the EU to take concrete steps towards establishing a broad, EU-wide vision. Currently, the TRAN Committee is in the process of drafting a report on the development of this strategy.

In the short term, before the finalization of such a strategy for the future of the tourism sector, the TFF argues that a separate budget line of €300 million is needed to support the sector and stresses the importance of considering the tourism industry in drawing up national recovery plans. The TRAN Committee also calls on the Member States to financially support the industry and apply common criteria for travel.

Agenda for a sustainable and smart tourism industry

On 12 October, the European Commission organized the European Tourism Convention in order to facilitate discussions among stakeholders on the recovery as well as the future of a sustainable tourism industry. According to Commissioner Thierry Breton, the Convention marks a first step towards a EU policy framework for the tourism sector.

Based on the conclusions of the Tourism Convention and the recent developments in the European Parliament, Dr2 Consultants identifies four important trends that will dominate the agenda for the recovery of the tourism sector.

  • The strategy for the future of the tourism sector should stimulate a dual transition towards a more sustainable and smarter sector, by accelerating investments. This could lead to the development of safe and seamless tourism experiences powered by the digitalization (data sharing, multimodal travel) and greener holidays (eco-tourism);
  • Sufficient investments in the sector are needed to ensure the recovery of the EU tourism industry. The European Parliament’s TTF proposal to create a separate budget line for tourism worth €300 million is not yet taken up within the draft MFF proposal. However, the European Commission has announced that the new Recovery and Resilience Facility, worth €560 billion, could also be used for the recovery of the sector;
  • Liquidity problems in the sector should be addressed, in particular to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). SMEs should be empowered and be able to operate more innovatively with digital tools and financial instruments, either through the proposed budget line or state aid;
  • Collaboration is key between the tourism industry, European politicians, and EU Member States. Policymakers on an EU level should cooperate and coordinate measures in the travel industry and engage with stakeholders to understand what is needed to build a new agenda or strategy for tourism of the future.

 Next steps

As travel restrictions and containment measures are still in place within the EU, a coordinated approach among the Member States is a prerequisite for the recovery. The main challenge for the tourism sector and policy-makers in the short to medium term remains to swiftly enhance cooperation to ensure the recovery of the EU tourism industry in the long term, ready for the current and any future crises.

At the same time, it is to be seen what the Commission will do in building an agenda for the future smart and sustainable tourism industry, as its workplan for 2021 does not reflect any concrete actions for the future industry so far. However, by organizing a convention on tourism, it has put the issue more plainly on the agenda and set the table for constructive dialogue between the sector and policymakers. It is expected that the final report of the European Parliament on establishing an EU strategy for sustainable tourism will further shape the debate on the sector’s future, inviting the European Commission to respond by developing a concrete vision for the future.

The anticipated recovery measures for the post-COVID-19 era will have a major impact on the EU budget and the EU policy agenda. In this challenging context, it is crucial to remain up-to-date with the latest developments and to be flexible in order to adjust and act quickly. Dr2 Consultants supports your organization in getting a better grip on the contingency and recovery measures that are announced at EU level. Visit our COVID-19 services webpage to learn more.

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Potential Consequences of a “No-Deal” Brexit

As negotiators are still running against the clock with the end of the transition period around the corner – and the deadline to reach an agreement coming even faster – now is the time for businesses to accelerate preparations for the future relationship between the UK and the EU, whatever it might look like. The negotiations have not seen much progress, despite recent intensification, and both parties have repeated that they are ready for a “no-deal” scenario. What would be the consequences of a no-deal Brexit? What would happen if no agreement is signed by 31st December 2020?

The United Kingdom officially left the European Union on 1 February 2020 but entered a transition period during which the UK is still part of the Single Market and Customs Union.

In November 2019, the EU and the UK have signed a first Withdrawal Agreement. This agreement settles the UK’s financial obligations (or so-called “divorce bill”), the status of citizens in the UK and the EU and arranges how goods trade between Northern Ireland and the EU would continue after Brexit. This agreement is not a trade deal and has little bearing on what a possible future agreement would look like.

Trade between the EU and the UK is significant, with the EU27 being the UK’s most important trading partner. In 2019, the rest of the EU had exported to the UK £372 billion of goods and services, and the UK had exported goods and services to the EU worth £300 billion.

The consequences of a no-deal Brexit

The UK will, no matter what, leave the Single Market and the Customs Union on 1st January 2021. Without a specific Free Trade Agreement, EU and UK trading relations would fall under “WTO terms”. The World Trade Organisation sets rules on international trade which all members must follow. WTO terms are the basic trading terms that can apply. Without an FTA with the UK, this will lead to the re-establishment of tariffs and non-tariff barriers and, for example, the loss of preferential access to the EU market.

Therefore, if an agreement is not found before the end of the transition period, from 1st January 2021, UK goods and services being imported in the EU would face the Union’s existing external tariffs for “third countries”. Reciprocally, the UK would also have to apply tariffs to EU goods entering the UK. In anticipation, the UK has adopted new “Global Tariffs” which will be imposed from 1st January 2021 to all countries with which it does not have trade deals.

Additionally, quotas restricting the number of goods allowed to be imported and regulatory barriers would also be applied. A whole new set of costly and time-consuming administrative procedures would also need to be complied with.

All these new barriers would have repercussions on the price of UK products sold in the EU, and vice versa. For example, the automobile industry estimates the application of the EU standard 10% tariff on imported vehicles would make UK imported cars about £1,900 more expensive.

One of the consequences of a no-deal Brexit is that the free movement would also come to an end, meaning that customs border checks would be imposed. This would put significant pressure on both British and EU businesses that are currently benefiting from unbarred trade and clear sets of rules. The UK Government is already anticipating significant lines and delays at border-crossing points. Truck drivers looking to cross over to France would also need a whole new set of documents to be allowed entry. This would impact industries relying on expeditive supply chains, such as the automobile or agri-food industries.

These new formalities would increase costs for businesses, which would impact the price of their products, and in turn, their competitiveness. This would be especially true for SMEs, which might not have the cash flow to sustain said costs.

How to mitigate the impact of a no-deal Brexit?

The Commission urges stakeholders to start preparing for the end of the transition period, under any scenario, as, even if a deal was to be found, significant disruption to trade would still appear on 1st of January. Although the consequences of a no-deal Brexit would be more impactful and far-reaching than in case of a deal, preparing for the UK’s exit in general will still help businesses and Member States bear the repercussions that the lack of agreement would have.

The EU Commission recommends companies to talk to their business partners, to contact local authorities and advice centres for further information and to consult EU Commission readiness notices.

First published while the EU and the UK were negotiating the Withdrawal Agreement, the readiness notices have now been updated by the Commission and cover over 100 sectors providing information on measures that should be taken by Member States, business and citizens in order to prepare for the UK’s exit, with or without a deal.

The Commission also prepared a checklist so business can make sure they have taken all the steps necessary to fully prepare.

Businesses that currently import or export goods from or to the UK should make themselves aware of rules applying to trade with third countries and obligations of importers or exporters, especially if they do not have experience trading with third countries.

With regards to customs formalities, checks and controls, the Commission also advises businesses to get acquainted with existing formalities and procedures for doing business with third countries. They should also assess the actions needed to mitigate the impact of increased administrative formalities and procedures, especially on supply chains.

Brexit Office

Understanding the consequences that a no-deal Brexit would have and navigating the legislation and regulations that will take effect after the end of the transition period can be overwhelming and time-consuming. Dr2 Consultants’ Brexit Office can help you understand the European regulatory maze.

Brexit Office

Transparency in the EU: a state of play

With approximately 30,000 lobbyists, Brussels is known as the world’s second lobbying capital, following Washington D.C. Even though the EU’s relatively small civil service is heavily dependent on the input of stakeholders, voices calling for more transparency have become stronger and stronger. Dr2 Academy explains the state of play of transparency in the EU.

Should transparency be an obligation?

Already since the European Commission’s 2016 proposal for an interinstitutional agreement on a mandatory Transparency Register, the different EU institutions have been debating the form of a ‘one-size-fits-all’ Transparency Register (hereafter: “the Register”). The Register, introduced in 2011, is a database that provides insights into all activities carried out by organizations with the intention of directly or indirectly influencing the decision-making processes of the EU and/or shaping the implementation of existing legislation. The Register has been set up to answer core questions such as what interests are being pursued, by whom and with what budget. The system is operated jointly by the European Parliament and the Commission.

In recent years, the European Parliament and Commission have tried to convince the Council of the EU to become more transparent by applying the Register. Currently, meetings with Commissioners, cabinet members or Commission officials at the helm of the Directorate-Generals need to be registered. In the European Parliament, the use of the Register has also become more of a common practice, in an effort by Members of the European Parliament (MEPs) to increase transparency towards their constituencies. Some MEPs make the presence in the Register a condition to accept meetings. The Council of the EU, however, has been lagging behind: most meetings still take place behind closed doors.

No registration, no meeting?

The most controversial issue in the negotiations is the principle of ‘no registration, no meeting’. This would mean organizations can no longer meet policymakers from the EU institutions if they are not in the Register. Following recent progress in the negotiations (which focused on additional clarity on the future purpose and scope for an enhanced Register), this conditionality will be further discussed in the coming months with all three institutions expressing their intention to reach an agreement as soon as possible. Furthermore, a revised Register is likely to include additional guidelines on virtual communication channels, as the nature of meeting policymakers changed significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent teleworking policies and travel restrictions.

EU Affairs Training - 28 January 2021

In the meantime, the different political groups in the European Parliament are increasing their transparency efforts. In June 2020, transparency watchdog Transparency International launched a new feature on the EU Integrity Watch, in which it tracks lobby meetings with MEPs. This led to a total of 10,000 logged meetings by the end of September 2020, with the percentage of MEPs reporting their meetings increasing from 37% to 44%.  However, there are internal discrepancies in the consistent usage of the Register. Mainly Scandinavian and Western European countries, as well as the liberal and green political groups are most consistent in their logging of meetings. Pressure from civil society, therefore, seems to work, but an obligation would make these efforts redundant.

A mandatory Register and its implications for Public Affairs

A mandatory Register could relieve lobbying in the EU of its somewhat dubious reputation, as well as enhance citizens’ trust in EU decision-making. Even though it is still unclear what the exact scope of the future Register would be, it is apparent that organizations will have to become more transparent about their activities in Brussels – regardless whether this is due to intrinsic motivation, or due to (mandatory) external obligations.

Organizations engaging in EU Public Affairs should, therefore, consider transparency and ethical interactions with policymakers to be an integral part of their daily work.

Dr2 Academy

The Dr2 Academy offers a wide range of tailor-made services targeted to organizations and professionals active in public or private sectors and whose work is impacted by EU policies. To learn more about EU Public Affairs and on how to engage in transparent Public Affairs, make sure to register for the Dr2 Academy EU Affairs Training on Thursday, 28 January 2020.

Dr2 Academy Register


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